Bottom Stop Defects

Massing Top or Bottom Stop Readily apparent and will result in zipper failure if facilities for attaching a top or bottom stop are not available. then the entire zipper. should be replaced In some instances, bottom stops are attached at garment plant An improperly or poorly attached bottom stop may be result of carelessness on part of the operator or of improper functioning of the bottom stop machine

Snap fasteners

Hard Action :  In light-weight goods this may result in stud or socket pulling through the material. The snap fastener manufacturer can be of help in recommending proper tension of stud in socket for weight of garment material

Light Action : Snap fastener does not stay closed because of lack of proper tensions. Same comment applies as for tight closure.

Hooks  & Eyes

 Improperly Applied This mostly caused by a careless operator os improperty adjusted attaching equipment and connection are usually simple when apparent improper Alignment Gauge available for attaching equipment to cure prope alignment in positioning This a necessary if garment is to have a properly tailored look if the top of the apper is extended into the waistband of the trouser than the hook and eye should be offset to prevent it from hitting the zipper material

Poor Finish: May be the result of improper finishing or pocking of the metal surface and while this defect dose not interferes with the functional operation it may not leave the desired finished appearance of the garment Tight/ Loose Closure Attaching equipment ill fitted with an adjustable feature permitting secure application of hook and eye to either light or heavyweight goods If closures seem too tight then one should immediately check the attaching equipment for proper adjustment


Rough or Dull  Surfaces

This is not a serious fault except in cases of Surfaces  of extreme roughness or poor surface appearance

Non Uniform Inaccurately Spaced Chipped or Blocked Sew Hole

This type of defects be noted the garment manufacturing operation and can slip inspection unnoticed but it frequently causes needle breakage or cut thread.

Rectification of Defects

Few common stitching defects encountered by in – line  checkers and their  causes are listed below:

  Improper Stitching  
Incorrect threading
 Bent needle head

  Improper feeding 
  insufficient or too much pressure on pressure foot.   Stitch length too short.

  Skip stitching   
Incorrect threading Damaged needie Larger needle hole improper thread tension too bight/thread stretches when heated
  Skip stitching (overedge machine)    Loopers are incorrectly set

Needle to looper setting is incorrectWrong thread type
Wavy Seam   Stitch length too short Pressure too heavy or light
Wavy Seams (overedge machine)Different feed needs increasing
Piles Feed unevenly             Incorrect pressure on the pressure foot  Piles lock or stitch together  Feed dog at incorrect height   Inappropriate pressure-foot   Inappropriate needle plate
Unbalanced TensionDifferent thread on needle and bobbin Thread slipped out of tension disc   incorrect threading  Poor quality thread Bent, rusted or incorrect bobbin/improperly or unevenly wound bobbin bobbin have  several layer of thread/bobbin case screw has worked out

Unbalanced Tension  (overedge  machine)   
Low power tension needs adjustment

 Uneven Stitches   
Thread does not feed smoothly/thread has wrong twist/thread  incorrectly threaded between  tension discs.Pressure too tight
Cracked  seam    Lint between the tension discs, guides or eyelets Bobbin or looper thread  tension too tight 
 Needle too small or wrong point
 Threads not moving smoothly through guides or eyelets Threads are too thick for needle or  machine nas rough spots
Thread  Breakage              Poor quality thread                                        Tension too tight    Needle set improperly   Needles need replacement     Pressure bar not  down    Rough needle eye, throat plate or thread spindle 
Seam grin  Snitch length too short  Thread not set into tension discs properly  Tension on needle thread too loose  
Machine Jam Machine is incorrectly threaded  Needle set incorrectly or damaged                                  Static electricity pulls fabric into needle hole               Bobbin inserted incorrectly 
Unthreading of needle Thread end too short Take up lever is not at highest position
      Needle BreakageNeedle needs replacement or set incorrectly Pressure foot too loose Bobbin or bobbin case incorrectly set Pulling fabric while stitching or without raising pressure foot Fabric too thick
Bobbin Thread       breakage     Improperly threaded machine  Bobbin tension too tight  Bobbin too full  Bobbin pigtail caught in bobbin-case  Bobbin screw not working properly

Process to Rectify Few Defects

 Re-  stitched Seams/Broken Stitches  
Using better quality sewing threads Ensure proper machine maintenance

Open Seam Seam Failure- Stitch
  Better quality threads  Proper size thread  for application  Proper tension
Seam SlippageChange seam type if possible   Increase seam width  Optimise the stitches per inch

Excessive seam Puckering   
Correct thread type and size Sew with minimum sewing tension to get a  balances stitch            Machine needle, bobbin and threads are set proper according to the fabric to be sewn
Knits & Stretch woven puckering      Set the machine properly according to the fabric                                          Minimum pressure foot pressure  
Improper Stitch balance-301 Lockstitch   Use quality thread                                                                               Properly  balance the stitch so that the needle and bobbin thread meet the middle of the seam. Always start by checking bobbin tension to make sure it is set correctly, so that minimum thread tension is required to get a balanced stitch 

Improper Stitch balance-401 chain stitch    
Use quality thread                                                                         Properly balance the stitch so that when the looper  thread is unravelled, the needle loop lay over half way  to the next needle loop on the underside of the seam
Improper Stitch balance- 504 overedge stitchUse quality thread                                                                                 Properly balance the stitch so that when the looper  thread is unravelled, the needle loop lay over half way  to the next needle loop on the underside of the seam
Raggeded/ inconsistent  Edge Make sure the sewing machine knife are sham and changed often                                                                                 The knives should be adjusted properly in related to the “stitch tongue” on the needle plate to the proper seam width

Fabric Care

The proper care of clothes ensures that the garments last longer and gives one value for money and look great after a number of washings

Safe Ironing temperatures limits for fabrics

Cotton  400 o-4250 F
Linen    450 OF
Silk300 o F
Wool  300 o F
Nylon   300 o -350 o F
Polyester325 OF
Rayon350 0-375 o F (Reverse and iron)
Rubber Do not iron

Industry Visit

The purpose of visiting a tailor shop/boutique is to get hands on knowledge about vanous processes used the work of a tailor During the visit you have to interact with Tailors and owner of the shop to understand how work is done in a tailor shop/boutique Make sure that you keep a notebook handy and not down any impona points that come up during your interaction at the tailor shop/boutique. When you go to an tailor shop/boutique you should:

Inspect stitched products against specifications

Analyze how tailors:

Inspect stitched products against specifications

Carryout alterations

Sew and apply trims by hand and machine

Also Understand the inspection and possible defects.

Ask questions to Tailors/shop owners if you have any query.