Types of Fabric Defects

Types of Fabric Defects

Unit Objectives

At the end of this unit, you will be able to:

 Understand different types of defects

 Find and rectify the defects

Identify different types of faults

Categories of Defects

Defects are categorised under three main areas

Critical defect: A defect which makes the garment unsafe for individual consumption or it contravenes any mandatory regulations

Major defect: An obvious defect in the appearance which reduces the usability and sale ability of the garment

Minor defect: A defect which is caused by a workmanship error beyond the quality standards but does not reduce the sale or consumption of the product

Fabric Defects      MajorMinor
Different Weight /handle of fabric than approved  sample    HOLD    
Different Weight /handle of fabric than approved  sample        M
Drill hole showing       M
Fabric faults not evident on sample (eg: cuts,holes, tears, thinSpots,runs,mispicks slubs,snags, nepping,Weaving faults)       M    m
Hole created in fabric when ticketing        M
Pattern, stripes, checks do not match as specified        M    m
Permanent creases on fabrics, streaks, parre        M    m
Bowing or skewing on plain fabrics more than 2.5 cm per garment width or length        M
Bowing or skewing on plain fabrics up to 2.5 cm per garment width or length    m
Nap or pile deformation       M
Shading Defects    MajorMinor
Shade variations between panels       M    m
Shade variations of garment fabric and trims within the garment        M
Shade variations of garment fabric and trims within the garment    HOLD
Dye streaks & barre marks at critical zone       M
Different batches within the order    Comm’t
Cleanliness    MajorMinor
Spots. Stain and soil marks        M
Threads ends untrimmed       M
Excessive fly or contamination on garment       M
Component Parts and assembly    Major  Minor
Missing parts        M
Missing operation        M
Operations not done per approved sample and specification        M
Misalignment of parts, pockets, flaps,trims more than 7 mm       M
Inconsistent nap directions if specified       M
Seams  and Stitching    Major
Open seam       M 
Skipped chain stitch       M
Incomplete seams (two or more stitches)       M
Double stitching gap 5 mm or more       M
Needle holes     m
Needle damage       M
Garment parts caught in unrelated seam distorting fit appearance       M
Improper stitch tension that affects appearance       M
Raw edges (other than specified) out side       M
Edge stitching irregular affecting appearance       M
Untidy mending       M
Piecing or joining of binding on critical zone of garments        M
Monofilament yarns being used as a sewing thread in any stitching  / including label stitching         M
Seam twisted , puckered or pleated affecting appearance        M
Pressing     Major  Minor
Burned or scorched       M
Over pressed to leave seam impression       M
Stretched or distorted during pressing       M
Excessive wrinkles that require pressing                   m
Sericus shine caused by improper  pressing       M
Pressed poorly or not pressed at all       M
Over Pressed on improperly finished to deform shapes, designs      M
Label, Hangtags and Embroidery     Major  Minor
Missing or wrong tags , hangtags, price tags etc.      M
Missing care, content and country or origin and main label       M
Hangtags insecurely attached or misplaced       M    m
Wrong main label       M
Label sewn with monofilament yarn      M
Label sewing thread does not match colour of the garment       M
Label sewing seam jneven , puckered and 5 mm away from Label edge       m
Harsh and stiff label compared to approved label (Children wear)      M
Harsh and stiff label compared to approved label (adult wear)    m
Label omitted or insecurely attached      M
Fibre label  does not meet labelling  legal requirement       M
Pockets    Major  Minor
Not in specified location more than 7 mm      M
Shaped poorly       M
Sewn  crooked       M
Not of specified size and shape       M
Edge stitching  not uniform    m
Flaps not properly placed       M
Puckers at flat joints      M
Collars and Cuffs    Major  Minor
Fullness or puckers at collar attachment       M
Collar points not uniform and balanced       M
Serious puckers at collar attachment      M
Misaligned or crooked collar settings more than 2 mm      M
Misaligned or crooked collar setting less  than 2 mm    m
Puckered  or crooked top stitching       M
Closure  Major  Minor
Buttons missing or damaged    M
Buttons  misplaced or misaligned causing poor appearance    M
Buttons not sewn securely    M
Buttons  not in specified. Type or colour    M
Buttons holes omitted or added    M
Buttons  holes uncut    M
Buttons  holes not sewn securely (easily unravels)     M
Defective snaps or fasteners that do not function     M
Misalignments of fasteners causing bad appearance    M
Snaps or grommets that are not properly set     M
Snaps that do not fasten properly or release very easily    M
Improper sippers setting causing wavy and bumpy appearance    M
Wrong size , type or colour zippers     M
Defective zipper sides     M
Defective zipper stops on open front jackets    M
Tight clearance between slides and seam edge causing difficult slider operation     M
Rivets not properly and securely set    M
Rivets with rough edges     M
Finishing and Hand-feelMajorMinor
Permanent Wrinkles or deformation on the garment     M
Folding and PackagingMajorMinor
Not as specified per product  specification     M
Any measurements beyond specified tolerance    M
Design and colour wayMajorMinor
Not according to approved sample or specification HOLD
Beyond specified tolerance  M
Less than specified toleranceHOLD
Knitted on different gauge machine  M
Shipping Carton MarkMajorMinor
Wrong or incomplete shipping carton markingsHOLD
S NOCritical Defects
1Loose components:Trims and fasteners those are used in the garment but not secure properly. For example , buttons, snaps, stones etc 
2Sharp edges: During the processing of the garment it come in contact with various sharp metals such as needles, staples, Broken needles, damaged and broken snap buttons, rivets, wire and pins.
3Drawstrings at head or neck for baby or kinds products. Draw string must be avoided in kids clothes. 
4Thread or trims which are extensively long or loose

Factors to be Considered 

Factors to be considered for classification of defects