Spoken English Class Note Day 1
Spoken English Class Course Syllabus :
➢ Introduction of English language essential skills
➢ Understanding Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking Skills
➢ Verbal aptitude
➢ Grammar Skills
➢ Parts of Speech
➢ What are verbs?
➢ Understanding verb, adjectives and adverb types
➢ Knowledge of Gerund and infinite Gerund,
➢ What is sentences and types of sentences
➢ Declarative sentence
➢ Imperative sentence
➢ Interrogative sentence
➢ Exclamatory sentence
➢ How to use sentence
➢ When to use sentence
➢ Examples of Prepositions, conjunctions
➢ Parts of speech vs parts of sentence
➢ What is conditional and types of conditional
➢ Vocabulary Training
➢ Written practices
➢ Error Discussion
➢ Improve the Confidence
➢ Clarity in Accent
➢ Soft Skills
➢ Word stress and sentence stress
➢ Presentation Practice
➢ Email and Letter Writing
➢ Conversation Practice
➢ Body language
➢ Preparation for Group Discussion
➢ Stand-alone speech
➢ Telephone conversation
➢ Video Conference Practice
➢ Preparation for every day activity
➢ Resume Preparation
➢ Interview Preparation
Introduction of English language essential skills
English language essential skills are critical for effective communication in today’s globalized world. English is the most widely spoken language in the world, and it is the primary language of international business, science, technology, and academic research.
The essential skills of the English language include reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Reading involves the ability to comprehend written text, including books, articles, and other documents. Writing involves the ability to express ideas and thoughts through written communication. Speaking involves the ability to communicate verbally with others, using the correct grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Listening involves the ability to understand and interpret spoken language.
English language essential skills are not only important for personal and professional development but are also crucial for academic success. English proficiency is often a requirement for admission to universities and colleges in English-speaking countries, and it is a vital factor in employment opportunities in many fields.
Furthermore, English language essential skills are essential for social and cultural integration. Knowing how to speak English allows individuals to interact with people from diverse backgrounds and cultures, making it easier to travel, work, and live in different parts of the world.
Overall, the English language essential skills are essential for success in today’s globalized world. It is a tool for communication and expression that opens doors to endless opportunities, whether it be personal or professional.
Understanding Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking Skills
Listening, reading, writing, and speaking are four essential language skills that are necessary for effective communication in any language, including English. Here’s a brief explanation of each skill:
- Listening: Listening is the ability to understand and interpret spoken language. It involves paying attention to the speaker, comprehending the meaning of words and phrases, and processing the information being communicated. Listening skills are essential for effective communication, as it allows the listener to understand the speaker’s message and respond appropriately.
- Reading: Reading is the ability to understand written text, including books, articles, and other documents. It involves interpreting written language and comprehending the meaning of words, sentences, and paragraphs. Reading skills are essential for academic success, as it is a vital tool for learning and acquiring knowledge.
- Writing: Writing is the ability to express ideas and thoughts through written communication. It involves using correct grammar, vocabulary, and punctuation to create clear and effective written messages. Writing skills are essential for academic and professional success, as it is a primary mode of communication in many fields.
- Speaking: Speaking is the ability to communicate verbally with others using the correct grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. It involves expressing ideas and thoughts clearly and effectively, and engaging in conversation with others. Speaking skills are crucial for personal and professional development, as it allows individuals to interact with people from diverse backgrounds and cultures.
Overall, each language skill plays an essential role in effective communication. By developing and improving these skills, individuals can enhance their ability to communicate effectively in any language, including English.
A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, idea, or concept. It is one of the eight parts of speech in English grammar. Nouns can be either singular or plural and can also be categorized as common or proper. Common nouns are generic names for
People- Rabindranath tagore , ram ,
Places – Kolkata , Mumbai, Delhi ,
Things – Book, chair, table
, such as “dog,” “city,” or “book,” while proper nouns refer to specific people, places, or things, such as “John,” “Paris,” or “Harry Potter.” In a sentence, nouns can function as the subject, object, or possessive form. For example, in the sentence “The cat caught the mouse,” “cat” and “mouse” are both nouns, with “cat” being the subject and “mouse” being the object.
A pronoun is a word that is used to replace a noun in a sentence. It is a part of speech that is used to avoid repetition and make sentences more concise and easier to read. Pronouns can refer to people, places, things, or ideas. Some common examples of pronouns include
I, “he,” “she,” “it,” “they,” “These, Those,” “we,” and “you.”
By using pronouns, writers and speakers can refer to the same noun multiple times without repeating it, which helps to avoid monotony and improve the flow of language.
An adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun by providing information about its qualities or attributes. Adjectives can be used to describe a variety of characteristics such as size, shape, color, texture, taste, and more. Examples of adjectives include “happy,” “blue,” “tall,” “soft,” “spicy,” “fast,” and “friendly.” Adjectives can be placed before the noun they modify (e.g., “a green apple”), after a linking verb (e.g., “The apple is green”),
Blame :– Ugly , Bad , Dull , Dishonest,faultless ,innocent , irreproachable , clear , Not perfect, Not pure,
Example – Rahim is Dull Boy
Quality – Good , Intelligent, Honest,Kind, Good, Excellent, Great, kind
Example- Rajat is an Intelligent Boy
Numbers– One, Two , Three, Four, Five etc
Example- I have a Five Book
Condition-स्थिति– Cold, hot, Soft, Hard, Poor etc
Example -The Bed Is So Soft
Quantity-मात्रा – Some, Little, Plain, Full , Sufficient
Example – Admission Seats are Full
Size- Tall , Short
Shape- Square ,
Color – Blue ,green , red,etc
Test – Spicy
A verb is a word that indicates a physical action (e.g., “drive”), a mental action (e.g., “think”), or a state of being (e.g., “exist”). Every sentence contains a verb. Verbs are almost always used along with a noun or pronoun to describe what the noun or pronoun is doing.
As- Go , Come, am, is , are , Read, Write , see, Drink, eat , sleep ,Talk, Run, laugh
1. Rajib Is a Good Boy
2. He goes to school everyday
3. Akash is writing a Letter
There are several types of verbs in English
- Linking verbs – These verbs are used to link the subject of a sentence to a noun, pronoun, or adjective that describes or identifies it, such as “be,” “seem,” “appear,” or “become.”
- Helping verbs – These verbs are used in conjunction with another verb to express tense, mood, or voice, such as “is,” “am,” “are,” “was,” “were,” “have,” “has,” “had,” “do,” “does,” “did,” “can,” “could,” “may,” “might,” “shall,” “should,” “will,” or “would.”
- Modal verbs – These verbs are a type of helping verb used to express possibility, ability, permission, or obligation, such as “can,” “could,” “may,” “might,” “shall,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “must,” or “ought to.”
- Transitive verbs – These verbs require a direct object to complete their meaning, such as “throw,” “eat,” or “paint.”
- Intransitive verbs – These verbs do not require a direct object and can stand alone in a sentence, such as “sleep,” “arrive,” or “laugh.”
6. Action Verbs
Action verbs express specific actions and are used any time you want to show action or discuss someone doing something. It’s important to remember that the action does not have to be physical.
Action verb examples:
The action verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
I run faster than David.
He does it well.
She thinks about poetry all day long
Transitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities that relate or affect someone or something else. These other things are generally direct objects, nouns or pronouns that are affected by the verb, though some verbs can also take an indirect object, such as show, take, and make. In a sentence with a transitive verb, someone or something receives the action of the verb.
Transitive verb examples:
The transitive verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
Gary ate the cookies.
The transitive verb is ate, Gary is the subject, because it is Gary who is doing the eating, and the cookies are the direct object, because it is the cookies that are being eaten. Other examples:
He kicked John.
John punches him.
They sold the tickets.
Examples of verbs used with both direct and indirect objects:
They sell him the tickets.
In this sentence, the tickets are the direct object while him is the indirect object.
Mary baked her mother a pie.
In this sentence, a pie is the direct object while her mother is the indirect object.
Intransitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities. They are different from transitive verbs because there is no direct object following an intransitive verb.
Intransitive verb examples:
The intransitive verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
We travelled to London.
The intransitive verb is travelled, the subject is we, because we are doing the travelling, but London is not a direct object because London is not receiving the action of the verb. Other examples:
I sneeze in the morning.
He arrived with moments to spare.
Kathryn sat away from the others.
John eats before leaving for school.
The last example shows that the verb eats can be both transitive and intransitive depending on whether there is a direct object or not. If the sentence read: John eats the cookies before leaving for school, eats would be transitive as there is a direct object – the cookies.
By the way, some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. These verbs include: start, leave, change, live, stop.
Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs and are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a question or negative. Common examples of auxiliary verbs include have, might, will. These auxiliary verbs give some context to the main verb, for example, letting the reader know when the action took place.
Auxiliary verb examples:
The auxiliary verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
I will go home after football practice.
The auxiliary verb will is telling us that the action of the main verb go is going to take place in the future – after football practice has ended. If the auxiliary verb will was removed, we get the sentence:
I go home after football practice.
In this case, there is no definite time frame for the action. The sentence suggests that going home after football practice is just something the subject I generally does. Other examples:
I may dance with you later.
We did consider Bryan’s feelings.
Jenny has spoken her final words.
In addition, we can sometimes use the auxiliary very before the pronoun to make a question:
Might you dance with me later?
Did we consider Bryan’s feelings?
Has Jenny spoken her final words?
Also, auxiliary verbs are used to help form negative statements, with the use of words like not and never. These will usually split the auxiliary and main verbs:
I may never dance with you again.
We did not consider Bryan’s feelings.
Jenny has not spoken her final words.
Stative verbs can be recognized because they express a state rather than an action. They typically relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being, and measurements. The best way to think about stative verbs is that they are verbs that describe things that are not actions. The stative verbs are all expressing a state: A state of doubting, a state of believing, a state of wanting. These states of being are often temporary.
The stative verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
The doctor disagrees with your analysis.
Disagree is a stative verb here, as it describes the doctor’s state of being – disagreement.
John doubts the doctor’s opinion.
I believe the doctor is right.
She wanted another opinion.
Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are used to express abilities, possibilities, permissions, and obligations.
Modal verb examples:
The modal verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
He can shoot a three-point shot easily.
The auxiliary verb can is expressing an ability, suggesting that shooting a three-point shot is a skill the subject possesses.
Please note that in the case of should and must in the examples below, the modal verbs are expressing obligations, whereas would and may are expressing possibilities.
I should go home.
You must not delay.
Sally would not recommend the sushi.
David may be late.
Phrasal verbs aren’t single words; instead, they are combinations of words that are used together to take on a different meaning to that of the original verb. There are many examples of phrasal verbs, some of which have colloquial meanings, such as make up, hand in, bring up, point out, look forward to. Each time the verb takes the extra word(s) it takes on a new meaning. For example, make without the up expresses that something is being created, whereas with make up, the suggestion is that there are some lies or a fantastical element to the story and make out can mean either to grasp or see something difficult, or to kiss passionately.
Phrasal verb examples:
- Run out
- Go all out
- Make out
- Hand out
- Bring out
- Face up
- Think through
The phrasal verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
Mary looked forward to her high school reunion.
The verb looked has taken on forward to to become a phrasal verb meaning to be excited about or eagerly await something.
He brought up the same points again and again.
Leroy handed in the wallet to the police.
I make up stories all the time.
She pointed out Donald’s mistake.
12. Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs are those that don’t take on the regular spelling patterns of past simple and past participle verbs. Unfortunately, there are hundreds of irregular verbs in the English language. But don’t worry, while many are used often, the majority are not in common usage – or if they are, you will use them so often you will learn them quickly. Some of the most common irregular verbs include: say, make, go, take, come, know and see.
Irregular verb examples:
The irregular verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
I take my time when I go to the shops (present tense)
I took my time when I went to the shops (past tense)
Julie makes cake for the classroom (present tense)
Julie made a cake for the classroom (past tense)
She sees a silhouette shaped like a man in the window (present tense)
She saw a silhouette shaped like a man in the window (past tense)
We come to Aunt Jane’s for Thanksgiving each year (present tense)
We came to Aunt Jane’s for Thanksgiving each year (past tense).
You should also remember that auxiliary verbs ‘do’ and ‘have’ are also irregular verbs:
I do agree.
He does it often.
We have done our homework early.
They do their homework on Fridays.
I have a suspicion about Fran
Fran has a devious look.
We have no money left.
They have had a cough twice this winter.
3 Type of Verb form
- Present Form , 2. Past form ,
3. Past Participle form
Past tense form of verbs formed by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ ot ‘t’ to their base verbs are weak verbs.
Present Past Past participle
Love Loved Loved
Kill Killed Killed
Help Helped Helped
There may/may not be any change in the inside vowel. These are also called ‘regular verbs’.
Present Past Past participle
Come Came Come
Break Broke Broken
Hang Hung Hung
- Strong verbs: Past tense forms are formed without adding anything, but by changing their body (spelling) are strong verbs. These are also called ‘irregular verbs’
Present Past Past participle
Go Went Gone
Do Did Done
Eat Ate Eaten