GDA Nursing Class Notes 11


A hospital is a specialized medical facility where medical professionals provide a wide range of medical services, treatment, and care to patients who require medical attention for various health conditions and illnesses. Hospitals are equipped with advanced medical technology, diagnostic tools, and specialized personnel, such as doctors, nurses, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals, to diagnose, treat, and manage patients’ medical needs.

The primary functions of hospitals include :

  1. Emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention to patients with life-threatening conditions or severe injuries.
  2. Inpatient care: Admitting and treating patients who require a longer stay for medical treatment, observation, or recovery.
  3. Outpatient care: Offering medical services to patients who do not require an overnight stay and can be treated and discharged on the same day.
  4. Diagnostics: Conducting various medical tests and diagnostic procedures to identify health issues accurately.
  5. Surgical procedures: Performing surgeries and other medical interventions requiring specialized facilities and equipment.
  6. Rehabilitation: Assisting patients with recuperation and therapy after illness, injury, or surgery.
  7. Specialty care: Providing care in various medical specialties such as cardiology, oncology, pediatrics, obstetrics, and more.

Hospitals can be classified into various types based on their size, scope of services, ownership, and specialization. Here are some common types of hospitals:

  1. General Hospitals: These hospitals provide a wide range of medical services and care to patients of all ages and with various health conditions. They typically have multiple departments and specialties to handle different medical needs.
  2. Specialized Hospitals: Specialized hospitals focus on specific medical areas or patient populations. Examples include Children’s Hospitals, Women’s Hospitals, Cancer Centers, Cardiac Hospitals, Psychiatric Hospitals, and Rehabilitation Hospitals.
  3. Teaching Hospitals: These hospitals are affiliated with medical schools and are involved in medical education and research. They provide training to medical students, interns, residents, and fellows.
  4. Community Hospitals: Community hospitals serve local communities and provide a range of medical services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient services, and basic medical procedures.
  5. Rural Hospitals: These hospitals are located in rural or remote areas, often with limited resources and specialized services. They play a crucial role in ensuring healthcare access for rural populations.
  6. Public Hospitals: Owned and operated by government entities, these hospitals provide medical services to the general public, often with a focus on affordability and accessibility.
  7. Private Hospitals: Private hospitals are owned and operated by private organizations or individuals. They may vary in size and services offered, and their primary goal is usually to generate profit.


  1. Clinical departments in a hospital are those departments primarily involved in providing direct patient care, diagnosis, and treatment of medical conditions. These departments are staffed with medical professionals, including doctors, nurses, and other healthcare practitioners who work directly with patients. Clinical departments are vital for delivering medical services and ensuring patients receive the necessary care for their specific health needs. Some of the common clinical departments found in hospitals include:

a) Emergency Department: The emergency department provides immediate medical care to patients with urgent and critical medical conditions .It is a critical department in a hospital that provides immediate medical care to patients with urgent and life-threatening medical conditions. The ED operates 24/7 and serves as the entry point for patients seeking emergency medical attention. It is staffed with a specialized team of healthcare professionals trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies.

b) ICU stands for Intensive Care Unit: It is a specialized department in a hospital that provides critical care and close monitoring for patients who are severely ill or critically injured. The ICU is designed to offer specialized medical attention and support to patients whose conditions require constant observation, advanced medical interventions, and life-saving treatments.